In the work place most of the times different communication styles can lead to misunderstandings between employees or between employee and manager. Even lack of communication causes conflict. Communication is the most potential medium to connect people. No doubt, communication is a very complicated process. Anyhow, communication is affected by different cultural backgrounds. As Bergeron (2000) has pointed out, communication takes place anytime a person receives information whether oral or written, assigning meaning to it performs behavioral actions. Such behavior may be conscious or unconscious and it may be intentional or unintentional response. Rutter (1996) examines communication to be a complex process besides being a tool to create understanding between people Hesselgrave (1991) suggested that “. effective communication is not easily achieved and miscommunication is not easy to avoid.” Myers, et al (2001) accepted that the process becomes even more difficult when the source and the participant originate from different cultures. Such difference causes conflict because of the difficulty of dissimilarity between the two different cultures. It has been observed that the wider the variation in communication between cultural backgrounds, the higher the possibility of conflict. Youth in Peacebuilding
Hiebert (1985) defined ethnocentrism as the emotional response which people often have when they first face with another culture. Ethnocentrism is a kind of ‘universal syndrome’ of discrimination including seeing behaviors attitudes and believing one’s own group as virtuous and superior having standards of value as universal considering other groups as contemptible and inferior. LeVine and Campbell (1972) depicting the critical ethnocentrism, stated that behaviors associated with ethnocentrism it can be affirmed as supportive and cooperative relations within the group framework and the absence of cooperative relations with other cultural groups. The major aspects of like language, accent, physical features, or religion encompass ethnocentrism. The most observable characteristics are based on group boundaries that are typically defined by one or more such behaviors (Sumner 1906; Hirschfeld 1996; Kurzban, Tooby, and Cosmides 2001). The said behaviors do also encompass all strong territorial components (Sumner 1906). The boundaries of ethnocentrism also include other conflicts beyond ethnic implications (Brewer 1979; Chirot and Seligman 2001). The essence of ethnocentric behaviors strongly believes one’s own culture is superior in every way which causes multiple reasons to breed conflicts (Elmer, 1993). Harris & Kumra (2000) were of the view that the two dimensions which can partially resolve the issue are overcoming this propensity toward ethnocentrism by having open mindedness with increased awareness of one’s own culture and the second is the practice of gathering more information about the differences in work values and cultural values of other cultures Ethnocentrism often develops through the complex process of enculturation. Enculturation has its inevitable affects on every opinion or action that a person thinks, says and does because of the strength of enculturation; people often compare new cultural ways to their own ways and mostly deduce that their ways are best. Both, ethnocentrism and enculturation are potent source of introducing conflicts among the rainbow workforce of multicultural organization.