In experimental research design, the researcher can most convincingly identify cause and effect relationship. In such design the researcher considers many possible factors that might cause or influence a particular condition in phenomenon. In such research, the researcher tends to control all influential intervening and erroneous factors/variables except those under study. The research makes sure that the groups of individuals used in the research share similar characteristics which is called “Equivalent groups”. He carries out a pre-test (before treatment). One group is then exposed to a treatment or intervention perhaps a new teaching method or experience, which may have effect on the characteristics he is studying. After that, both groups are subjected to the same test called Post- test. If there is a change in the treated (treatment group) we attribute it to the treatment. Because we have not just observed or collected data we have manipulated the groups we say it is experimental design. There are many types of experimental design.
\One Group Pretest – Post Test Design
In this design, pretest is done for one group before treatment .Then post test is done. Any difference in observation is attributed to treatment.
In this design, 2 groups are involved-a control group and treatment group are involved. Treatment is given to one group and then observation is made.
Pretest – Post Test Control (Group Design)
In this design, the control group is not treated before pretest or after post test.
Group 3 and 4 are like control groups but groups 1&3 are treated while groups 2 & 4 are not treated. Any change in observations could be attributed to treatment received by groups 3 & 1. This type of design requires very large samples.
Solomon Four group design 4 groups are involved in the following patterns
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
Example: a teacher wants to find out if pupils’ academic performance is affected by use of Computer -Based instruction in mathematics.
Declarative: This study is focused on finding out if Primary One pupils’ academic performance in mathematics is affected by use of Computer-Based instruction in Lander University staff school, York city.
Interrogative: Can Computer -Based instruction in mathematics enhance Primary One pupils’ academic performance in mathematics in Lander University Staff school, York?
The teacher may have 2 groups of Primary One pupils. He tests them in particular mathematics topic, records their result (his observation). He goes ahead to teach Group 1 with computer and also teaches Group 2 same topic without computer using the common black or white marker board method. Group 1 is treated (treatment group) while Group 2 is control group. He exposes both groups to same test or examination. Teacher records the scores of the same test administered to both groups after teaching. He then analyses the results to ascertain which of the groups performed better in that same topic. Any observation is interpreted accordingly.
The writer has attempted to explain how a student can find researchable problem in education. Attempt has also been made here to offer practical examples of how a problem can be formulated and stated precisely either in declarative form or interrogative form or in simple English. This work is not extensive in scope but will assist students in the faculty of education understand and become familiar with the writing of statement of problem. This aspect of research is sometimes worrisome at the preliminary stage in research supervision. Oftentimes, in the process of Proposal Defense, panel members spend quality time attempting to assist students come up with a problem statement. Most students do not know what the part called ‘statement of problem’ should focus on. A clear and concise problem statement gives a greater insight into what the researcher intends to do and what the researcher intends not to do. When a researcher thinks carefully about a problem and it focal centre,he/she distinguishes what is relevant and what is irrelevant in his study. Therefore, it is very crucial that form the onset, ruling out interfering or extraneous variables becomes paramount.