Research can be a simple survey. It is a scientific way of solving problems. It is a systematic process of finding out an answer to a critical question, a burning issue, or searching for the solution to a problem which a researcher is interested it. It is structured inquiry regarding solution to a given problem.

A problem by itself is any hindrance or obstacle, which tends to prevent group or an individual from realizing desired objectives in any field of human endeavor. Thus research problem is any problem, issue or question that engages the attention of the researcher, example: in the field of technology, education, or social sciences. The researcher may be a student, lecturer, or some other person engaged in professional research.

Furthermore, a research problem may be a real problem that persons recognize to exist or an imaginary, theoretical one which a professional researcher may pose in order to direct his quest for additional knowledge in a particular field of learning. Academic research papers read at conferences and or published in learned journals are in this category From the foregoing, the most important consideration in any research undertaking is the identification.


There are two major ways of classifying research. These are according to purpose and according to the method of investigation .

By purpose

1. Basic /fundamental /pure research
2. Applied Research
3. Action Research

By Method

1. Descriptive research
2. Historical Research
3. Experimental Research

There is no clear demarcation between them, there is an overlapping.


This type of research involves a rigorous and well structured testing of variables and analysis of research finding for the purpose of determining characteristics/attributes of a selected sample which can be employed to make generations about the characteristic or parameters of the entire population from which the sample was drawn. This type of research is normally carried out by scientists and Technologists in academic discipline such as Engineering, chemistry, physics, Biology and medicines.


This is research carried out in field of action or in a real problems situation. Although its procedure are not controlled as in pure research.Applied research has most of the characteristics of Pure Research.It is therefore scientific in the outlook. Most of the research carried out in the in the field of social sciences and education are applied in nature .They are concerned with developing principles and making generations and making generations of a given phenomenon.


This is a small scale research which a researcher may conduct to establish some fact or resolve some issues like validating his observation. In this way, the researcher’s knowledge and skills are steadily enhanced. Unfortunately information from action research is usually limited in its usefulness and generalization. It cannot be applied to a large population target.


This type of research is aimed at examining current events, to determine relationships that exists , opinion or processes that are in existence etc. Examples of descriptive research include survey observational case study, correlation, longitudinal, cross sectional and ex post-facto research. Data collection is by questionnaire, interviews and observations


This deal with evaluation of past events to establish relationship with the present as to predict the future. Data collection is from primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include an eye witness account, records and oral testimonies. Secondary sources include periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets etc


This type of research is aimed at establishing cause and effect relationship. It involves manipulation of one, two or more variables eg independent and dependent variables, extraneous and interviewing variables. It also involves treatment and control groups. Evaluation could be through parametric and non parametric statistics. Finally, it involves applying appropriate test of significance to determine confidence level of the results of the study.