ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH EMPLOYEE: OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between employee attitude and behavior towards organizational performance in the information technology industry. The present study attempts,
1. To study the relation between employee attitude and behavior towards organizational performance.
2. To study the relation between employee attitude and behavior with outcome measures.
3. To find out the difference between gender with employee attitude and behavior Video shot boundary detection

HYPOTHESES

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between organizational performance with employee attitudes and behavior
Ho2: The employee attitudes and behavior is not related with discretion effort and loyalty Ho3: There is no significant difference between gender with employee attitudes and behavior

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ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH EMPLOYEE: LITERATURE REVIEW

LITERATURE REVIEW

Hai Li, Baiyin Yang, Mian Zhang (2011) investigated 362 firms on the two functions of organizational culture link to organizational performance, centering on human resource capability as a mediator and environmental uncertainty as a moderator. McKenzie, K. (2010) examined the relationship between HRM, organizational culture and firm performance. It has primarily explored the relationship and different views between HRM and culture. Liao and Rupp (2005) studied the impact of justice climate and justice orientation on work outcomes (citizenship, satisfaction, and commitment) on a sample of 231 employees from 44 work groups representing nine organizations spanning seven different industries. Fulmer B, Gerhard B, Scott K. (2003) has done a study on the relationship between being a “Great Place to Work” and firm performance. Furthermore, Boselie, Dietz and Boon (2005), by analysing the literature over the last years on the HRM-performance relationship, reported wide disparities in the treatment of the components emphasizing the “black box” stage between HRM and performance. They indicated that the theoretical frameworks which dominated the field were the “contingent framework” (i.e., HRM influences performance in relation to contingent factors such as business strategies) (Schuler & Jackson, 1987), the resource-based view (i.e., HRM influences performance according to the human and social capital held by the organisation) (Barney, 1991) and the AMO theory (i.e., HRM influences performance in relation to employees’ Ability, Motivation and Opportunity to participate) (Appelbaum, Bailey, Berg, & Kalleberg, 2000). Delaney and Huselid (1996) found that some of the more progressive human resource management strategies, 5 including careful selection at appointment, training and incentive compensation, have a positive effect on the organizational performance. Suppress

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ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH EMPLOYEE: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The Indian information technology (IT) industry has played a key role in putting India on the global map. The IT industry, alone, has played a pivotal role in placing India on the world map as a major knowledge-based economy and outsourcing hub. The IT segment has been the second largest segment in the Indian IT sector and in growth, the second fastest. The growth of the segment for the next five years is expected to be driven by a shift in the service mix towards higher value services like business analytics, knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) including legal services, etc. India is a preferred destination for companies looking to offshore their IT and back-office functions. It also retains its low-cost advantage and is a financially attractive location when viewed in combination with the business environment it offers and the availability of skilled people. Today, Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India and contributes 33% of Indian IT Exports. India’s second and third largest software companies are head-quartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies. Education

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UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SOUTH AFRICA: QUALITY OF ACADEMIC WRITING IN CPUT

WRITING IN CPUT

The poor academic writing in higher education is a global problem and academics are likely to be haunted by this problem for a very long time especially given that university education is not for the elites any more (Shore 2010; Lea & Street 1998). In CPUT, this endemic problem will continue to riddle the scholarship of teaching and learning even longer because of the quality of students attracted by the university. Whether we like it or not, the poor quality of academic writing skills of CPUT undergraduates, has visible implications for the scholarship of teaching and learning. The significantly low throughputs and the increasing dropout rates at CPUT can be blamed on one level on students’ lack of essential academic literacy skills that can sail through their diploma programmes.

For me, the first step to addressing this problem is to accept that given the schooling and literacy experiences of CPUT students, academics will continue to deal with students with very mediocre literacy skills and severe lack of university preparedness. So, instead of incessantly mourning and groaning about the quality of student, we should refocus our energies on socialising and acculturating them into higher education. Part of this process of socialisation and acculturation entails reiterating the value of academic writing in higher education. It also involves redesigning academic development curricula in such a way that they are more responsive to the needs of students (Pineteh, 2011).

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UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SOUTH AFRICA: ACADEMIC WRITING IN CPUT

The university is a completely new world to scholars from high school, a seemingly complex one which “involves adapting to new ways of knowing: new ways of understanding, interpreting and organising knowledge” (Lea & Street 1998:157). The world of university is one whereby students are constantly constructing new processes, new identities and giving academic and social life new meanings across space and time (Ivanic, Edwards, Satchwell & Smith, 2007; Gee &Green 1998). Today, students in higher education are expected to produce “knowledge which is social accountable, reflexive, trans-disciplinary and problem-oriented” (Waghid 2002:461). Furthermore, university landscapes have been complicated further by the irruption of social media in higher education. The unwavering interest in technology-based teaching and learning especially in universities of technology means students have to deal with the chaos of the mediated world on a daily basis (Ehlers & Schneckenberg 2009). To this end, socialising into the culture of university depends on a co-dependent partnership between students, academic staff and the management of the university. For a student to succeed in a university they must take ownership of the learning process while tapping into with professional expertise of academic staff. Here, academics provide mentorship to students while they embark on the quest for knowledge. Students should also be provided with adequate facilities and/or infrastructural support by the university.

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UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SOUTH AFRICA: SOUTH AFRICAN UOT

SOUTH AFRICAN UOT

Academic writing in higher education provides a prism through which student can develop cognitively, socialise into the culture of higher education as well as negotiate identity and power (Lea, 1998; Lea & Street, 2003, Lillis, 2003). To be proficient in academic writing, a student should be able to apply myriad human skills and organise their thoughts coherently and cohesively, while applying specific discipline instructions and conventions. It also “involves negotiating social relationships, attitudes and values” in one literacy activity (Valentine 2006: 90). Academic writing is a movement through different writing stages and social experiences, which often require reflective and critical thinking. Quality academic writing in higher education therefore depends solely on students’ ability to read critically, interpret, analyse and synthesise ideas in a very methodical manner (Perin, Keselman and Monopoli 2003; Gambell 1987, Kelder 1996, Kinsler 1990).

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UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SOUTH AFRICA: CONTEXT OF CPUT

I teach communication skills at CPUT and my key responsibility I suppose, is to develop skills that can put CPUT graduates at a competitive advantage in the workplace and also prepare them for postgraduate studies. Essentially, the course is divided into two main sections: academic literacies and business communication. These sections cater for different genres of writing including inter-alia academic essays, term/research papers, business letters and technical reports. For the three years that I have lectured in this university I am always amazed by the extent to which students and academic staff disregard academic writing as a vital literacy practice in higher education. Here, several contesting narratives have attempted to articulate the role of Communication and the usefulness of academic writing in a university technology. These narratives have percolated into criticisms of the course contents and teaching strategies of academic development courses like Communication. Some of these criticisms are also rooted in the misconception that university of technology students do not really need academic writing to survive in the world of work.

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UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SOUTH AFRICA: POST-APARTHEID ERA

POST-APARTHEID ERA

Modern universities are “shifting from elite to mass higher education system where there is a greater cultural, linguistic and social diversity than in the past” (Lillis 2003: 192). The massification of and the ensuing shifting vision of universities today is the direct consequence of increasing government influence and pressures of globalisation (Shore 2010; Kreber 2003, Lea & Street 2006). This has shifted the core business of modern universities from the development of educated citizenry to the “commercialization of teaching and research… [reinventing them] into transnational business corporations operating in a competitive global knowledge economy” (Shore 2010:15/17).

In South Africa, the shifting vision of universities is espoused strongly by the governments envisions to redress the ills of the apartheid era, democratise the education system through the promotion of racial and gender parity, and the development of skills that are responsive to needs of the new South Africa ( Pineteh 2012; Archer 2010; Leibowitz 2004). The government’s meddling in the way South African universities are managed has resulted in the irruption of infamous educational policies and curriculum documents aimed at restructuring schools and universities as well as fostering the social changes promised by the new political dispensation (Leibowitz, 2004; Ensor 2004; Waghid 2002).

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UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SOUTH AFRICA: HIGHER EDUCATION

Although there is a paucity of literature precisely on how CPUT students write, there is avalanche of general literature on student writing in higher education around the world. I do not intend to explore this vast body of knowledge in its entirety but simply to highlight topical issues that have informed this article. I am particularly interested in the conceptualisations of academic writing in higher education and curriculum issues in articles like Fairclough 1992; Ivanic 1999; Lea & Street 1998 & 2006; Lillis 2001 & 2003 and Street 2004. These articles have been at the epicentre of debates about the usefulness of academic writing in universities and new literacy studies (Street 2004). They have also been concerned with new epistemologies in higher education and the “radical rethinking of what counts as literacy” especially in this age of increasing access to university education globally (Street 2004:10). Although, the articles address student writing in higher education from different perspectives they however provide a prism through which academics in other universities like CPUT can interrogate academic writing.

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UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SOUTH AFRICA: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

This article examines the poor quality of academic writing in Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa. It seeks to understand why undergraduate students in this university struggle with academic writing and how the poor quality of their writing skills minimises their chances of completing their degrees and diplomas in record time. It also proposes ways to improve the quality of academic writings in the institution. The article reflects on my professional practices and experiences as a Communication lecturer at CPUT.

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