Existing performance measurement is used to improve organizational performance. Performance measurement can help an organization measure progress towards its goals, understand its current situation, address the key issues, and the options available (Searcy et al., 2008). This statement is also supported by Amaratunga et al. (2000) who proved that performance measurement as the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of an action. Effective performance measurement can let us know about a way of doing something, achieve the goals, customers’ satisfaction, work under control, and improvements are necessary (Isik, 2009). Therefore, performance measurement is the process to identify how successful organizations or individuals have been in attaining their objectives and strategies.
For more than 40 years, lean manufacturing techniques have been achieving outstanding success rates. First in Japanese plants, and now in advanced factories throughout North America, it has proven to be a cost effective and flexible approach to achieving superior customer satisfaction (Kivell, 2012). Hence, this paper’s proposed that SLI depends on three aspects such as standards work (Murphy, 2001; Foschi, 2009; Graban, 2009), employee involvement (Cabrera et al, 2003; Jones and Kato, 2005) and continuous improvement (Pay, 2008; Terziovski and Sohal, 2000; Schlichting, 2009) which have adopted the conceptual proposed by Schlichting (2009). However, some amendments constructs have been made based on this paper’s proposed.
Malaysia which is located in the centre of ASEAN region with a population of more than 28 million people offers vast opportunities for global automotive and component manufacturers to set up manufacturing and distribution operations in this country. External environment of business namely: (i) economic stability; (ii) culture of the country; (iii) research and development of technology; (iv) politic and law stability; and (v) global participation have attracted major international automotive and component manufacturers to invest in Malaysia. Currently, according to Malaysia’s Automotive Industry (MAI, 2010), there are 28 manufacturing and assembly plants producing passenger and commercial vehicles, composite body sports cars as well as motorcycles and scooters. These plants have a total installed capacity of approximately 963,300 passenger and commercial vehicles and about 1 million motorcycles per year, with production catering primarily for the domestic market. Moving forward into 2012, Malaysia Automotive Institute (2012) foresees a brighter automotive sales and production despite the uncertain economic environment. While sales in the US are set to continue a steady recovery in 2012, the emerging countries such as China and India are expected to continue outperforming the developed countries. Elsewhere within the ASEAN countries, Thailand and Indonesia are also expected to continue their strong growth this year in line with the GDP forecasted by respective countries, while Malaysia forecasts at least a 5.1% growth in 2012. As such, the total industry volume (TIV) is also likely to flourish in 2012 due to high correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and TIV.
All the modules are integrated and synthesized using Xilinx project navigator and support tools. The synthesized VHDL source code is placed and routed. Finally, a bit file is created. This bit file is programmed into the Xilinx XC2S300E-6PQ208 FPGA and interfaced with the input and output devices. Table 5 shows the synthesis report of the controller. The motor has been tested for various terrain and various gears conditions. Here, initially, the system is in neutral gear, smooth terrain type, with the available battery status, no acceleration and braking. To start the system, choose 1st gear and the motor runs at the minimum speed. Then proceed by changing the gear for increasing the speed. The vehicle can switch over from one terrain to another terrain by setting the terrain thumb wheel switch position appropriately. Similarly moving the switch position also carries out gear switching. The module has been checked for various input conditions. Some of the cases are listed below.
The design of the controller consists of an FPGA, analog-to-digital converter & toggle switches for the inputs, motor and LCD for the input. A block diagram for the controller is shown in Figure 2.
The major components of an electric vehicle system are the motor, controller, power source, charger for electric vehicle although other promising battery technologies are emerging in the horizon.
Fuzzy Logic has been successfully applied to a large number of control applications. The most commonly used controller is the proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) controller, which requires a mathematical model of the system. Fuzzy logic controller provides an alternative to PID controller since it is a good tool for the control of systems that are difficult in modeling. The control action in fuzzy logic controllers can be expressed with simple “if-then” rules. Hardware implementation of the controller can be achieved in a number of ways to create new products. The most popular method of implementing fuzzy controller is using a general-purpose microprocessor or microcontroller.
Figure.10 shows the variation of smoke levels with BMEP in CE and LHR engine with maximum induction of ethanol at recommended and optimum injection timings and at an injection pressure of 190 bars. It is seen that for the same load, the smoke density decreased with induction of alcohol. The combustion of injected fuel in case of pure vegetable oil operation is predominantly one of oxidation of products of destructive decomposition. In this case, there are greater chances of fuel cracking and forming carbon particles. On the other hand, the combustion of alcohol is predominantly a process of hydroxylation and the chances of fuel cracking are negligible. Ethanol does not contain carbon-carbon bonds and therefore cannot form any un-oxidized carbon particles or precursor to soot particles. One of the promising factor for reducing smoke levels with the alcohols is they contained oxygen in their composition which helped to reduce soot density. Soot emissions increased linearly with the increase of carbon to hydrogen atoms (C/H) ratio provided the equivalence ratio is not altered.
Investigations are carried out with the objective of determining the factors that would allow maximum use of ethanol in diesel engine with best possible efficiency at all loads.
The variation of brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with different percentages of ethanol induction in conventional engine (CE) at 27obTDC and at an injection pressure of 190 bar, is shown in Figure.3. Variation of BTE with BMEP with pure diesel operation on CE is also shown for comparison purpose. BTE increased at all loads with 35% ethanol induction and with the increase of ethanol induction beyond 35%, it decreased at all loads in CE when compared with CE with diesel operation (standard diesel).
Figure.1gives the details of insulated piston, insulated liner and ceramic coated cylinder head employed in the experimentation. LHR diesel engine contains a two-part piston; the top crown made of low thermal conductivity material, superni-90 screwed to aluminum body of the piston, providing a 3mm-air gap in between the crown and the body of the piston. The optimum thickness of air gap in the air gap piston is found to be 3-mm, for better performance of the engine with superni inserts with diesel as fuel.